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Klexikon ist ein Online-Lexikon, das im Dezember entstanden ist und das sich an Kinder im Alter von sechs bis zwölf Jahren richtet. Der Name Klexikon. Kinder steht für: die Mehrzahl von Kind; eine Verwandtschaft, siehe Verwandtschaftsbeziehung #Kinder · Kinder (Louisiana), Ort im Allen Parish, Louisiana. appwa.co ist das größte und beliebteste Online-Lexikon für Kinder - mit tausenden Artikeln von A wie Aal bis Z wie Zwillinge! Wikipedia. Das Klexikon ist wie eine Wikipedia für Kinder. Herzlich willkommen im Klexikon, dem großen Online-Lexikon für Kinder! Willst du mehr über. © SWR appwa.co · Check Eins · BR Kinder.

Wikipedia Bundesländer

Die KiwiThek ist eine Kinderwikipedia, daher der Name. Diese Internetseite stammt aus Österreich und wird ständig erweitert. Deswegen lohnt es sich, dort. Klexikon ist ein Online-Lexikon, das im Dezember entstanden ist und das sich an Kinder im Alter von sechs bis zwölf Jahren richtet. Der Name Klexikon. Kinder steht für: die Mehrzahl von Kind; eine Verwandtschaft, siehe Verwandtschaftsbeziehung #Kinder · Kinder (Louisiana), Ort im Allen Parish, Louisiana.

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Consultado el 18 de diciembre de Consultado el 16 de diciembre de Archivado desde el original el 20 de mayo de Consultado el 26 de junio de Consultado el 10 de enero de Consultado el 3 de diciembre de Archivado desde el original el 31 de marzo de Consultado el 25 de marzo de The Washington Post.

Consultado el 1 de noviembre de Consultado el 15 de mayo de Consultado el 31 de octubre de Archivado desde el original el 3 de septiembre de Claire M.

Hayek to understand Wikipedia? Entrevista con Jimmy Wales Christof Kerkmann. Stallman 20 de junio de Free Software Foundation, ed.

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Consultado el 19 de febrero de The Economist. Consultado el 22 de abril de Nature : Baja Sajonia. Mecklemburgo- Pomerania Occidental.

Renania del Norte -Westfalia. Renania- Palatinado. Baden- Wurtemberg. Schleswig -Holstein. Consultado el 2 de junio de Brill … Inst.

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Consultado el 6 de enero de Datos: Q Multimedia: States of Germany. Vistas Leer Editar Ver historial. The next change occurred in the aftermath of German reunification in , in which the area of the German Democratic Republic East Germany became part of the Federal Republic.

This was performed by the way of accession of the re-established eastern states of Brandenburg , Mecklenburg-West Pomerania Mecklenburg-Vorpommern , Saxony Sachsen , Saxony-Anhalt Sachsen-Anhalt , and Thuringia Thüringen to the Federal Republic, as well as the de facto reunification of West and East Berlin into Berlin and its establishment as a full and equal state.

A regional referendum in to merge Berlin with surrounding Brandenburg as "Berlin-Brandenburg" failed to reach the necessary majority vote in Brandenburg, while a majority of Berliners had voted in favour.

Federalism is one of the entrenched constitutional principles of Germany. According to the German constitution Basic Law, or Grundgesetz , some topics, such as foreign affairs and defence, are the exclusive responsibility of the federation i.

Though international relations including international treaties are primarily the responsibility of the federal level, the constituent states have certain limited powers in this area: in matters that affect them directly, the states defend their interests at the federal level through the Bundesrat "Federal Council", the de facto upper house of the German Federal Parliament and in areas where they have the legislative authority they have limited powers to conclude international treaties "with the consent of the federal government".

It is the states which formed the Federal Republic of Germany in This was in contrast to the post-war development in Austria , where the national Bund federation was constituted first, and then the individual states were carved out as units of this federal nation.

Before this time, the states of the German Empire were called Staaten states. Today, it is very common to use the term Bundesland federal land.

However, this term is not used officially, neither by the constitution of nor by the Basic Law Constitution of From the 17 states at the end of the Weimar Republic , six still exist though partly with different border-lines :.

The other 11 pre-existing states either merged into one another or were separated into smaller entities. A new delimitation of the federal territory keeps being debated in Germany, in contrast to how there are "significant differences among the American states and regional governments in other federations without serious calls for territorial changes" in those other countries.

Gunlicks summarizes the main arguments for boundary reform in Germany: "the German system of dual federalism requires strong Länder that have the administrative and fiscal capacity to implement legislation and pay for it from own source revenues.

Too many Länder also make coordination among them and with the federation more complicated". Federalism has a long tradition in German history.

The Holy Roman Empire comprised many petty states , numbering more than around The number of territories was greatly reduced during the Napoleonic Wars — After the Congress of Vienna , 39 states formed the German Confederation.

The Confederation was dissolved after the Austro-Prussian War in which Prussia defeated Austria and forced Austria to remove itself from the affairs of the German states.

The parliament and Federal Council decided to give the Prussian king the title of German Emperor since January 1, The new German Empire included 25 states three of them, Hanseatic cities and the imperial territory of Alsace-Lorraine.

After the territorial losses of the Treaty of Versailles , the remaining states continued as republics of a new German federation.

These states were gradually de facto abolished and reduced to provinces under the Nazi regime via the Gleichschaltung process, as the states administratively were largely superseded by the Nazi Gau system.

Initially, only seven of the pre-War states remained: Baden in part , Bavaria reduced in size , Bremen, Hamburg, Hesse enlarged , Saxony, and Thuringia.

The states with hyphenated names, such as Rhineland-Palatinate, North Rhine-Westphalia, and Saxony-Anhalt, owed their existence to the occupation powers and were created out of mergers of former Prussian provinces and smaller states.

Former German territory that lie east of the Oder-Neisse line fell under either Polish or Soviet administration but attempts were made at least symbolically not to abandon sovereignty well into the s.

The former provinces of Farther Pomerania , East Prussia , Silesia and Posen-West Prussia fell under Polish administration with the Soviet Union taking the area around Königsberg now Kaliningrad , pending a final peace conference with Germany which eventually never took place.

However, no attempts were made to establish new states in these territories, as they lay outside the jurisdiction of West Germany at that time.

Upon its founding in , West Germany had eleven states. These were reduced to nine in when three south-western states South Baden , Württemberg-Hohenzollern , and Württemberg-Baden merged to form Baden-Württemberg.

From , when the French-occupied Saar Protectorate was returned and formed into the Saarland , the Federal Republic consisted of ten states, which are referred to as the " Old States " today.

West Berlin was under the sovereignty of the Western Allies and neither a Western German state nor part of one. However, it was in many ways de facto integrated with West Germany under a special status.

East Germany originally consisted of five states i. In , these states were abolished and the East was divided into 14 administrative districts called Bezirke.

Soviet-controlled East Berlin — despite officially having the same status as West Berlin — was declared East Germany's capital and its 15th district.

Just prior to the German reunification on 3 October , the East German states were reconstituted close to their earlier configuration as the five " New States ".

Henceforth, the 10 "old states" plus 5 "new states" plus the new state Berlin add up to current 16 states of Germany. Later, the constitution was amended to state that the citizens of the 16 states had successfully achieved the unity of Germany in free self-determination and that the Basic Law thus applied to the entire German people.

Article 23, which had allowed "any other parts of Germany" to join, was rephrased. It had been used in to reintegrate the Saar Protectorate as the Saarland into the Federal Republic, and this was used as a model for German reunification in The amended article now defines the participation of the Federal Council and the 16 German states in matters concerning the European Union.

The German states can conclude treaties with foreign countries in matters within their own sphere of competence and with the consent of the Federal Government Article 32 of the Basic Law.

Typical treaties relate to cultural relationships and economic affairs. Today, Freistaat is associated emotionally with a more independent status, especially in Bavaria.

However, it has no legal significance. All sixteen states are represented at the federal level in the Bundesrat Federal Council , where their voting power depends on the size of their population.

Article 29 of the Basic Law states that "the division of the federal territory into Länder may be revised to ensure that each Land be of a size and capacity to perform its functions effectively".

The somewhat complicated provisions regulate that "revisions of the existing division into Länder shall be effected by a federal law, which must be confirmed by referendum".

A new delimitation of the federal territory has been discussed since the Federal Republic was founded in and even before. Committees and expert commissions advocated a reduction of the number of states; academics Rutz , Miegel , Ottnad etc.

Territorial reform is sometimes propagated by the richer states as a means to avoid or reduce fiscal transfers.

To date, the only successful reform was the merger of the states of Baden, Württemberg-Baden, and Württemberg-Hohenzollern to form the new state of Baden-Württemberg in Article 29 reflects a debate on territorial reform in Germany that is much older than the Basic Law.

The Holy Roman Empire was a loose confederation of large and petty principalities under the nominal suzerainty of the emperor.

Approximately states existed at the eve of the French Revolution in Territorial boundaries were essentially redrawn as a result of military conflicts and interventions from the outside: from the Napoleonic Wars to the Congress of Vienna , the number of territories decreased from about to 39; in Prussia annexed the sovereign states of Hanover , Nassau , Hesse-Kassel , and the Free City of Frankfurt ; the last consolidation came about under Allied occupation after The debate on a new delimitation of the German territory started in as part of discussions about the new constitution.

Hugo Preuss , the father of the Weimar Constitution , drafted a plan to divide the German Reich into 14 roughly equal-sized states.

His proposal was turned down due to opposition of the states and concerns of the government. Article 18 of the constitution enabled a new delimitation of the German territory but set high hurdles: "Three fifth of the votes handed in, and at least the majority of the population are necessary to decide on the alteration of territory".

In fact, until there were only four changes in the configuration of the German states: The 7 Thuringian states were merged in , whereby Coburg opted for Bavaria , Pyrmont joined Prussia in , and Waldeck did so in Any later plans to break up the dominating Prussia into smaller states failed because political circumstances were not favourable to state reforms.

After the Nazi Party seized power in January , the Länder increasingly lost importance. They became administrative regions of a centralised country.

In , the military governors of the three Western Allies handed over the so-called Frankfurt Documents to the minister-presidents in the Western occupation zones.

Among other things, they recommended revising the boundaries of the West German states in a way that none of them should be too large or too small in comparison with the others.

As the premiers did not come to an agreement on this question, the Parliamentary Council was supposed to address this issue.

Its provisions are reflected in Article There was a binding provision for a new delimitation of the federal territory: the Federal Territory must be revised paragraph 1.

Moreover, in territories or parts of territories whose affiliation with a Land had changed after 8 May without a referendum, people were allowed to petition for a revision of the current status within a year after the promulgation of the Basic Law paragraph 2.

If at least one tenth of those entitled to vote in Bundestag elections were in favour of a revision, the federal government had to include the proposal into its legislation.

Then a referendum was required in each territory or part of a territory whose affiliation was to be changed paragraph 3. The proposal should not take effect if within any of the affected territories a majority rejected the change.

In this case, the bill had to be introduced again and after passing had to be confirmed by referendum in the Federal Republic as a whole paragraph 4.

The reorganization should be completed within three years after the Basic Law had come into force paragraph 6.

In their letter to Konrad Adenauer , the three western military governors approved the Basic Law but suspended Article 29 until such time as a peace treaty should be concluded.

Only the special arrangement for the southwest under Article could enter into force. In southwestern Germany, territorial revision seemed to be a top priority since the border between the French and American occupation zones was set along the Autobahn Karlsruhe-Stuttgart-Ulm today the A8.

Article stated "The division of the territory comprising Baden, Württemberg-Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern into Länder may be revised, without regard to the provisions of Article 29, by agreement between the Länder concerned.

If no agreement is reached, the revision shall be effected by a federal law, which shall provide for an advisory referendum. On 25 April , the three former states merged to form Baden-Württemberg.

With the Paris Agreements , West Germany regained limited sovereignty. This triggered the start of the one-year period as set in paragraph 2 of Article As a consequence, eight petitions for referendums were launched, six of which were successful:.

The last petition was originally rejected by the Federal Minister of the Interior in reference to the referendum of However, the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany ruled that the rejection was unlawful: the population of Baden had the right to a new referendum because the one of had taken place under different rules from the ones provided for by article In particular, the outcome of the referendum did not reflect the wishes of the majority of Baden's population.

The two Palatine petitions for a reintegration into Bavaria and integration into Baden-Württemberg failed with 7.

Further requests for petitions Lübeck, Geesthacht, Lindau, Achberg, and 62 Hessian communities had already been rejected as inadmissible by the Federal Minister of the Interior or were withdrawn as in the case of Lindau.

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